Effects of European IndustrializationThis is a featured page

Aim: How did Industrialization and Europeans "ISMs" affect modern society?

Who: Europeans (mainly British), Americans, Japanese, Russia

What: Technological Innovation, Cheap Manufactured Goods and Travel and Transportation, Transition from Old World into a modern economy

When: Mid 18th century to early 20th century

Where: United States and Europe (Britain)

Why: High demands for raw materials

Origins of Industrialization
  • Industrialization - the process that transformed agricultural economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in 1780
  • Why: strong banking traditions, natural resources (coal, iron ore) size of country and river and canal system, cotton from America
  • Effect: Agricultural Revolution - food surplus, disposable income, population increase
Technological Innovations
  • Cotton Industry: machines were invented to make cotton – (increase production) flying shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Spinning “mule,” power loom, spinning flame
  • Eli Whitney (1793) – cotton gin: used to clean cotton
  • Steam Engine (James Watt) (1765) – increase productivity and cheaper prices – Burned coal while drove a piston to turn a wheel
  • Iron industry: first major advancement since middle ages (1780) – Henry Cort: invented method of refining iron core and Bessemer converter (1856) cheaper and stronger steel
  • Automobile production: Henry Ford (1913) – developed assembly line
  • Contraception: Condoms invented in England – Made from animal intestines in 17th century, latex in 19th century and Ancient methods- beeswax, oil paper diaphragms, mercury, arsenic, crocodile dung depository
  • Putting out system - worker was contracted to a company that allows them to work in their own homes, it replaced the previous guild system
  • Later, putting out system was replaced because of increasing expenses, increase in urbanization (guarantees supplies of cheap unskilled labor)
  • Transportation improved with the help of the steam engine and better steel – First steam engine (1804) and George Stephenson (1815) – first steam powered locomotive
  • Steam ships replaced sailing ships in mid 1800s
  • Railroads and steamships lowered transportation cost
  • Factory System – require division of labor, discipline, supervision
  • Working conditions are often harsh; they were not skilled workers (6 days a week, 14 hours a day and frequent accidents)
  • Protest – “Luddites” protested against machines from 1811-1816
  • Struck against mills and destroyed machines (14 luddites hung in 1813, the movement dies out)
  • Population Growth – Europe and America’s population grew dramatically from 1700-1900
  • London: Population from 1800-1850 is 1 million- 2.4 million
  • Migration – people moved from rural areas to urban areas (1900: 50% of people lived in industrialized towns and 50 million migrated across Atlantic Ocean in search of job opportunities)
  • Escape potato famine in Ireland, anti-Semitism in Russia, (Jews escape Tsarist persecution)
  • Effects: urbanization caused air population and unsanitary water supply (1848: First sewage system, piped only water)
Social Classes
  • Industrialization restructured the social class:
    • 1. Aristocrats (Wealthy)
    • 2. Bourgeoisie (Middle Class) – professionals, managers, accountants
    • 3.Working class – unskilled, poorly paid workers
Women and Child Labor
  • Industrialization effect on women – didn’t have a lot of working opportunities
    • 1. Low wages, 30-60 % less wages then men
    • 2. Couldn’t bring children to work, stayed at home to take care of family
  • Effect on Children
    • 1. Factory Act of 1833 – minimum work age is 9
    • 2. Cotton industries – 29% of workers were children, advantage of size (tunnels, gathering loose cotton under machines)
  • Monopolies formed by John D. Rockefeller (oil Monopoly in the U.S.) and German IG Farben (90% of chemical production)
  • Government was slow in controlling Monopolies
  • Britain and France lay foundation for modern corporation (1850-1860s) – Private business owned by millions of stockholders
Socialist and Communist
  • Utopian Socialist (Charles Fourier and Robert Owen) – people who wanted to improve the problems caused by capitalism and industrialization (Established equal model communities which was influenced by Enlightenment)
  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels stated utopian socialist are unrealistic and unproductive, they disagree – The Communist Manifesto (1848) and “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” end capitalism
  • Communist – egalitarian, classless society
Global Effects
  • Latin America (Exported goods that held little interest, Foreigners controlled lands so profits went abroad instead of to the country, and Local economies were damage)
  • Russia: Industrialism promoted by Tsarist government
  • (1860-1900) built over 35 thousand miles of railroads – constructed railways that ranged for more than 9000 kilometers across Siberia
  • Sergei Witte: finance minister – promoted industry (Reform commercial law to protect industries, Promoted nautical and engineering schools)
  • Russia: 1900 was very industrialized (oil, iron, armament producers)
  • Japan: most industrialized land in Asia by 1900 (Hired foreigners to teach Japanese workers, Opened schools that focused on Scientific and technical fields, and Government supported banking systems and construction of railroads)

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